Jewish Times of Day

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Jewish Times of Day

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Jewish Times of Day are used to calculate daily prayer times, and Candle Lighting and Shabbat's End that occur the day before and on the Shabbat (or a holiday) respectively. Actual prayer times fall in a range from earliest to latest and can be further modified by extenuating circumstances.

 

In a manner analogous to Muslim Prayer Times, there are different definitions of the way to calculate dawn and dusk. Using the Jewish Religious Options, you can specify, for each Script, the definition that you wish to use (you can even define these times in new ways, if requested by a customer).

 

Halakhic Hour

(Vilna Gaon)

One twelfth of the interval from Sunrise to Sunset.

Halakhic Hour

(Magen Avraham)

One twelfth of the interval from Dawn (Early) to Dusk (Rabenu Tam).

Dawn

(Early)

Time of morning when the sun's depression angle is 19deg46' (90 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem at the equinox).

Dawn

(Rambam)

Time of morning when the sun's depression angle is 16deg2' (= 72 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem at the equinox). This is the opinion of Maimonides as understood by most experts, with the time depending on the season and location, as measured by the depression angle. Rabbi Ovadia Yosef disagrees and uses 1.2 Halakhic Hour (Vilna Gaon) instead.

Recognition

The point between Dawn and Sun Rise at which one can recognize an acquaintance at a distance of about two meters. It has been found experimentally to correspond to a depression angle of 11deg.

Sunrise

Time of morning when the sun's depression angle is 0deg50' (which is astronomical and halakhic sunrise, when the upper limb of the sun is first visible at sea level). Because of atmospheric variation, it cannot be predicted to greater than 2 minutes accuracy.

Shema

(Magen Avraham)

One quarter of the way between Dawn (Early) and Dusk (Rabenu Tam).

Shema

(Vilna Gaon)

One quarter of the way between Sunrise and Sunset.

Noon

Time when sun is overhead, which is almost identical with the midpoint between Sunrise and Sunset. This is contrary to the lone opinion of Rabbi Moses Feinstein (which has additional ramifications).

Plag Minha

One and a quarter Halakhic Hour (Vilna Gaon) before Sunset.

Sunset

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle is 0deg50' (which is astronomical and halakhic sunset, when the upper limb of the sun is last visible at sea level). Because of atmospheric variation, it cannot be predicted to greater than 2 minutes accuracy.

Dusk

(Vilna Gaon)

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle is 4deg40' (= 18 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem [ignoring elevation] at the equinox). Rabbi Ovadia Yosef uses an even earlier time for early dusk, namely, 13.5 minutes.

Dusk

(Rav Of Ladi)

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle 5deg55' (= 24 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem at the equinox).

Dusk

(72 Min)

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle is 16deg2' (= 72 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem at the equinox). This seasonal and latitudinal variation is according to the majority understanding of (one aspect of) Rabbenu Tam's opinion. Customs vary.

Dusk

(Rabenu Tam)

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle is 19deg46' (= 90 minutes after sunset in Jerusalem at the equinox).

Candle Lighting

Eighteen minutes before Sunset; customs vary. This is observed the day before Shabbat and holidays.

Shabbat Ends

Time of evening when the sun's depression angle is 8deg30', as per the observed value of Rabbi J. M. Tykocinski. Customs vary. This is observed on Shabbat days and on holidays

 

 

Detailed references and explanations of the various entries in the table can be found in Halachic Times for Home and Travel by Leo Levi, Rubin Mass, Ltd., Jerusalem, 3rd ed. 2000. Note that at extreme latitudes, some phenomena do not occur; these (and values that depend on them) are treated as No Time by Q++ and you can use the corresponding settings in Religious Options to determine what text, if any should appear on those days.


Topic updated on 23-Sep-2011.
Topic URL: http://www.qppstudio.net/webhelp/index.html?jewishshabbathtimes.htm